The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of individuals with and without schizophrenia within a Canadian correctional population. This cohort study included 46,928 individuals who were released from Ontario’s provincial correctional facilities from January 1 to December 31, 2010. Survival analysis was used to examine how schizophrenia, incarceration, comorbidity and healthcare utilization were associated with recidivism in this cohort; each of these variables showed a decrease in the risk rate of recidivism. The study results show that the schizophrenia prevalence within this cohort was 7%. Approximately 67.5% of schizophrenic individuals were reincarcerated within five years following the index incarceration, compared to 58.8% of individuals without schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia were 40% (aHR: 1.39) more likely to have a reincarceration event following release than the comparative group. Descriptively, individuals with schizophrenia experienced a higher number of correctional events and higher rates of healthcare utilization throughout the observational period.